Friday, April 15, 2011

Grammar (The Present Progressive)

        The present progressive expresses an activity that is in progress( is occurring, is happening) right now. The event is in progress at the time the speaker is saying the sentence. The event began in the past, is in progress now, and will probably continue into the future.
                                           Form: am, is, are + ing.
(a) Sara can't come to the phone right now because she is taking shower.
(b) It's noon. I am eating lunch at the cafeteria right now.
(c) Ann and Bob are babies. They are crying. I can't hear them right now. Maybe they are hungry.

Forms of the present progressive.
Statement: I am working.
                   (You- We- They) are working.
                   (He- She- It) is working.
Negative: I am not working.
                 (You- We- They) are not working.
                 (He- She- It) is not working.
Question: Am I working?
                 Are (you- we- they) working?
                 Is (he- she- it) working?

Present Progressive short answers to the questions.
Question: Are you studying?
Short answer: Yes, I am.
                        No, I'm not.
Long answer: Yes, I am studying.
                        No, I am not studying.

Short question: Is Sana Studying?

Short answer: Yes, she is.
                        No, she's not or
                        No, she isn't.

Long answer: Yes, she is studying.
                        No, she's not studying. or
                        No, she isn't studing.

Short question: Are they studying?

Short answer: Yes, they are.
                        No, they're not. or
                        No, they aren't.

Long answer: Yes, they are studying.
                        No, they're not studying.
                        No, They aren't studying.   

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Grammar (The Simple Present)

                                                            The Simple Present

          The simple present expresses daily habits or usual activities.
(a)    Ann takes a shower every day.
(b)   I usually eat lunch at the cafeteria.

The simple present expresses general statements of fact.
(c)    Babies cry.
(d)   The earth revolves around the sun.
(e)    A square has four equal sides.
(f)     The sky is blue.

In sum, the simple present is used for events or situations that exist always, usually, or habitually in the past, present or future.

Forms of the simple present.
Statement: ( I- You- We- They) works.
                  ( He- She- It) works.
Negative: ( I- You- We They) do not work.
                 ( He- She- It) does not work.
Question: Do ( I- you- we- they) work?
            Does ( he- she- it) work?

Simple Present Short answers to questions.
Question: Does Bob like tea?
Short answer: Yes, he does.
                        No, he doesn’t.
Long answer: Yes, he likes tea.
                        No, he doesn’t like tea.

Question: Do you like tea?
Short answer: Yes, I do.
                        No, I don’t.
Long Answer: Yes, I like tea.
                         No, I don’t like tea.

Monday, April 11, 2011

A visit to a circus

        A circus came to our town in November last. I saw its posters on the walls. I went there, one day, to see an afternoon show. It began with the appearance of two clowns. They were dressed in multicolored clothes. They cut jokes with each other. Their talk was so funny that it made us laugh very heartily. Then came six horses, with a rider on the back of each. They ran, with the riders standing on their backs. They jumped from horse to horse and filled us all with great surprise. Then came the elephants, the monkeys and the camels to show their wonderful tricks. after the intervals, six pretty looking girls entertained us with their songs, and dances and gymnastics. Last of all came two lions and a well-dressed young man with whip in his hand. He ordered them to stand on their legs, and they obeyed him. We clapped our hands, when we saw them drink water with two goats. The show ended after that, and we returned home full of great surprise at what we had seen.

Friday, April 8, 2011

My best friend

       Mr. David is my best friend. He is my next door neighbor. He is also my class-fellow. He is of the same age as I am. His father is the leading doctor of the city. He was elected the chairman the Basic Democrats of this locality. He is also the president of municipal committee. Despite all these things, my friend is not at all proud. He is very kind to the poor students of his class. He helps them with books and clothes. He also pays their fees, if they are not in the position to do so. He is the top most student of the class. He obtains the highest marks in English, history, science and mathematics. He is a very good player of soccer. He is also a good swimmer and a fine athlete. He is an ideal students, and his teachers like him very much.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

A walk on a moon- lit night

         The moon, the queen of the night, was shining in the sky right gloriously. The twinkling stars looked very grand and majestic. I was greatly charmed by the beauty of the moon-lit night. I couldn't help going out for a walk. The houses, the shops, the trees and the road itself were shining like so many springs of endless light. A cow here and a dog there were seen moving silently about, perhaps, like myself, they were also mad with joy at the beauty of the night. Before long, I was passing through rich fields of ripe corn. the golden ears of wheat greeted my eyes, Wherever I went. The glorious moon-beams added to grace of the scenery all around. At last I stood near the canal. It was flowing very softly. The moon and stars were reflected in its clear water. The golden rays of the moon danced over the waves. I sat spellbound under a tree, still the realm of the sky was completely conquered by the sun, the lord of the day. 

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

(C) The police

Request of help from police officer.
My car is missing.
My car has been stolen.
I’ve been robbed.
I’ve been mugged.
I’ve been raped.
He had gun.
We’re trapped up here.
We’re trapped in here.

A police officer seeking information.
Tell me exactly what happened.
Are you lost?
Can you provide a description of the missing person?

A police officer confronting a criminal.
Hands up!
Put your hands up!
Put your hands on your head!
Tell it to lawyer! (info)
I don’t care who you are!

(B) The life and death

Life and death emergencies- (formal)
There is someone in that house!
Please try to find my brother!

Life and death emergencies.
My cousin fell from a ladder!
My child has been run over.

Life and death emergencies-medical.
My baby has stopped breathing.
I'm having terrible chest pain.

Emergencies (A) Accidents

Asking what has happened at the scene of an accident.
What happened?
Has the family been notified?

Asking for help at the scene of an accident.
Is there a doctor here?
Can you stop the bleeding?
Get the paramedics.
Get some help.
Get a doctor quick.

Dealing with an injured person at the scene of an accident.
Is he breathing?
Get a first aid-kit.
We need some bandages.
Stop the flow of blood.
Stay right there.
Stay put.

Asking someone about injuries received in an accident.
Are you OK?
Can you move your arm?

Explaining that you have witnessed an accident.
I saw the whole thing.
I'm a witness.
I got the license number of the car.

(F) Discussion and resolution

Encouraging an explanation.
I didn't get that.
I didn't here you.

When you don't understand someone.
I don't see what you are getting at.
I don't get you.
I don't follow you.
I 'm not sure I follow you.
I'm not sure i get your pint.

When someone doesn't understand.
That's not what meant.
I didn't say that.I said not such thing.
I didn't mean to imply that.

Criticizing someones misunderstanding.
 Listen to me.
Open your ear. (info)
Get the wax out of your ears. (info)
You've got it wrong.
you've got it all wrong.
You've got me wrong.
You've twisted my words.

Attempting to put an end to an misunderstanding.
let me rephrase that.
Let me clarify that.
Allow me to clarify.
Let me make myself clear.

Encouraging someone to believe you.
That's the truth.
That's the honest truth.
I swear on my mother's grave.(info)
I swear to God.
That's the gospel truth. (info)

Asking to be trusted.
You've my words on this.
I give my words.
I give you my word of honor.
On my honor.
Don't be such a doubting Thamas.

Stating that something is settled.
It's locked up.
It's sewn up.
It's sure thing.
It's for sure.
It's certain.It's in the bag.
It's a done load.It's as good as done.

Claiming that something is easy to understand.
It's as plain as day.
It's as clear as day.
Any fool can see it. (info)

Showing disbelief.
You can't fool me.
You can't pull the wool over my  eyes.
I wasn't born yesterday.

Expressing ignorance.
I don't know.
I don't know and I don't care.
I don't have a clue.
I don't have the fan-test idea.
Haven't the foggiest.
I give up. (info)

Expressing reluctance.
I'm afraid so.
Not in a million years.
Over my dead body. (info)

Tuesday, April 5, 2011

(3) Disputes

Criticism of someone with whom you disagree.
You're without a clue. (info)
Don't you know anything?
How can you be so stupid? (info)
That ain't the way I heard it.

Calling someone crazy.
You're off your joker. (info)
You're out of your mind. (info)
He's two bricks shy of a load.
You're out of your tree.
You're out of your head.

Questioning someone's sanity.
Are you crazy?
Is he nuts?
Are you out of your tree?
Are you out of it?
Have you gone crazy?
Have you gone insane?
Have you gone mad?
Have you gone stark raving mad?
Have you gone loco? (info)
Have you gone plumb loco? (info)
Have you lost your mind?
Have lost your senses?
Have you lost your marbles?

Encouraging someone to be more sensible.
Get a life. (ifo)
Get real!
Come back to earth. (info)

Asking  disbelief or disagreement.
For real? (info)
No kidding?
Are you serious?
Are you pulling my leg?

When someone says something outrageous.
Get out of town!
You're kidding!
That blows my mind. (info)

Monday, April 4, 2011

(D, 3) Complex matters.

Encouraging someone not to be excited.
Don't loose your cool.
Don't blow your cool.
Don't blow a gasket.
Don't go in to hysterics.
Don't go in to hysterics on me.

Encouraging someone to relax.
Simmer down.
Calm down.
Be calm.
Calm yourself.
Deal with it. (info)

Encouraging someone to be less aggressive-informal.
Don't have a cow.
Give it a rest.
You got ants in pants.

When someone is cold and unfeeling- informal.
You're as cold as ice.
You're a cold fish.
Have you no qualms?
Have you scruples?
Have you no conscience?
Have you no thought for anyone but yourself?
Think you before you speak.
Think before youact.
Try putting yourself in my shoes.

What to say to smoker.
This is a none smoking area.
This is a none smoking building.
It's your funeral. (info)

A smoker's response to a none smoker's complaint.
Mind your own business.
Go to a none smoking area.

Questions a smoker might ask.
Got a match?
You got a lighter?
Do you mind if I smoke?

(D, 2) Complex matters.

Introducing a secret.
Just between you and me...
Can you keep a secret?
Don't repeat this, but...
Don't let this get around, but...
Could you keep a secret?

Instructions about keeping a secret.
Better keep quit about it.
Don't breathe a word of it.
Don't let it out of this room.
Don't let this go any further.
Don't tell a soul.
This is not for public knowledge.
This is not public knowledge.
This is not for publication.

Promising to keep a secret.
I won't tell a soul.
My lips are sealed.
It won't leave this room.
Wild horses couldn't drag it out of me.
I'll take it to my grave.

Where was I?
What was I saying?
What were we talking about?
I don't remember.
I have a mind like a sieve.
I'm a little absentminded.
Are we supposed to be at some place right now?

 When you are in trouble.
I'm in deep.
I'm in over my head.
I'm in a way over my head.
My reputation is at stake.

When someone is in trouble.
You've really screwed up. (info)
You are up a creek. (info)
You are up the creek. (info)

When you are out of money.
I'm broke.
I'm flat broke.
I'm bankrupt.

Expressing stress or anxiety.
I'm going nuts.
I'm going crazy.
I'm loosing my mind.
I'm going to explode.
I'm coming apart at the seams.
I'm falling apart at the seams.

When you are overworked and doing too much.
I scarcely have time to breathe.
I've no time to call my own.

When someone is anxious and under stress.
Calm down.
Don't be such a worrywart.
Don't loose your sleep over it.

(D, 1) Complex matters

Expressing support for someone.
I’ll stand by you.
I’m standing behind you.
You can put your trust in me.
You can put your faith in me.

Offer help to someone.
I’m here if you need me.
I’m here for you.
I’ll take the rap.

Expressing trust in someone.
I’ve faith in you.
I’ve the utmost faith in you.
I confidence in you.

Expressing encouragement
Stay at it.
Go for it.
Give it a try.
Hang in there. (info)
Hang tough.
Stick it out.

Encouraging someone to stop stalling and do something.
Let’s see some action. (info)
It’s now or never.
Are you just going to sit there?
Aren’t you going to do anything?

Expressing dissatisfaction with someone’s effort.
It’s not up to snuff.
Is that all?
Once more with feeling.

Asking someone to wait.
Wait a moment.
Wait a minute.
Just a second.
Hold your pants on. (info)
Wait a bit.

Encouraging someone to be patient and take things.
Take things as they come.
Take it as it comes.
Take it one day at a time.
Take things one day at a time.

Encouraging someone to be prudent- cliches.
Don’t jump the gun.
Don’t go off half-cocked.
Don’t go chomping at the bit.
Don’t put the cart before the horse.
Don’t get ahead of yourself.

Giving advice someone whose life is too busy.
You can’t please everybody.
You are taking on too much.
You’re doing too much.
You’re trying to do too much.
You are overdoing it.
You need to set your priorities.

Giving instruction to someone you’ve lent something to.
Take good care of it.
Bring it back in one.

(C) Making friends

Expressing friendship.
We're very close.
She's a dear friend.
She's like a sister to me.
He's like the brother I never had.
We're like brothers.

Commenting on the uniqueness  of someone.
He's one of kind.
Bob's a one of a kind.

Personal similarities.
We're two of a kind.
They're two of a kind.

Inviting someone to work.
You want to work. (info)
Could I have the next work?

Bringing a conversation to an end.
Let's call it a day.
We should be on our way.
Let's bid our farewell. (for)

Sunday, April 3, 2011

(B) Launching the conversation

Starting an informal conversation.
Guess what?
Have heard the latest?
Get a load of this. (info)
Dig this.

Inviting someone to talk.
You got a minute?
Get a minute?
I need to talk.
Let’s talk.

Coming to the point of the matter.
Make no bones about it.
Read my lips.
      Let’s call a spade a spade.
      Here’s the bottom line.

      Requesting that speaker get to the point.
      What’s your point?
      Get to the point.
      Cut to the chase.

      Various conversational phrases.
      If I may add some information?
      Pardon my French.
      Know what I mean?
      You know what I’m saying?
      Encouraging someone to speak plainly.
      Lay it on the line. (info)
      Tell it to me like a man. (info)
      Give to me straight. (info)
      Give it to me in plain English.
      Don’t beat around the bush.
      Cut the crap.

      Noting digressions in a conversation.
      That’s beside the point.
      That’s beside the question.
     That’s not at issue.
     That’s not the issue.
     That’s off the subject.
     That’s irrelevant.
     Hat’s another can of worms.
     You are getting of the subject.
     As you were saying…
    Getting back to the point..
    But I disagree. (for)

    Repeating what you have said.
    As I’ve said….
    If I’ve said it once, I’ve said it a million times.

    When someone is being repetitious.
    So you said.
    Stop beating a dead horse.
    We get the point, already.
    We heard you already.
    Agreeing with a speaker.
    It seems.
    So it would seem.

    Answers to “How did you find out?”
    It’s a common knowledge.
    We are openly visible to everyone.
    News travel fast.
    But news travel fast.
    None of your business. (info)

Conversational Encounters (A) Focusing attention

Getting someone’s attention.
Pardon me. (for)
Hey, you! (info)

Getting someone to listen to you.
Look here. (info)
Listen here. (info)
Listen up. (info)
Do you here me?
Do I have your ear?
Am I making myself heard?

Directing attention to an object.
Get a load of this.
Take a gander at that.
Can you believe my eyes?
I don’t believe my eyes.
That’s a sight for sore eyes.

Confirming that you are paying attention.
I here you.
I’m still here.

Saturday, April 2, 2011

(G) Disagreeing.

Stating simple disagreement or refusal.
Not a chance.
I don’t think so.

Stating categorical disagreement.
You’re wrong.
You’re dead wrong.
You’re off.
You’re way off base.

Stating strong disagreement.
That’s a lot of bull. 
That’s a lot of baloney.
That’s a bunch of baloney.
That’s a bunch of malarkey.
That’s a lie.
That’s a big, fat lie. (info)
You’re lying through your teeth.
Look me in the eye and say that.

Stating your disagreement with a proposition.
That’s out of the question.
That’s unthinkable.
I’ll give that all the consideration it’s due.

Expressing rejection.
I can’t stand it.
I hate it.
SI don’t care for it.
I don’t like it.
It’s ugly.
It’s dreadful.
It’s hell on earth. (info)
I don’t get it.
I can’t do it.

Expressing refusal.
No, sir.
No, sire.
Nothing doing.
You’re out of luck.
Not likely.
Save your breath.
Not in a million years.
Not for a million dollars.
You couldn’t pay me to do it.
Not in your wildest dreams.
You wish.
Damned if I will.
Like hell.
You’re S.O.L.

Stating that someone is wrong.
What are you talking about?
You don’t have leg to stand on.
You haven’t a leg to stand on.
You’re really stretching the truth.
You can lay that notion to rest.

Arguing about the facts.
You’ve got it all wrong.
You’ve got your facts wrong.
You haven’t got the facts.
You haven’t got the facts right.
Next time get the facts straight. (info)
Next time get the facts first. (info)
Don’t jump to conclusions.

(F) Agreeing

Simple agreement.
Yeah. (info)
Right on!
You got it.
You bet.

Stating your concurrence.
This is true.
That’s true.
I couldn’t agree with you more.
I’ve no problem with that.
We see eye to eye on this.
I couldn’t have said it better.
You took the words right out of my mouth.
I will drink to that.

Expressing acceptance.
It’s fine.
I think it’s fine.
I like the texture.
I like the flavor.
It’s got a good rhythm.
It’s wonderful.
It’s fabulous.
This is the ultimate.
It couldn’t be better.
There’s none better.
Never been better.
It doesn’t get any better than this.
I’ve never seen anything like it. That’s the ticket. (info)
It’s a league of it’s own..
I give it four stars.
It gets two thumbs up. (info)
I’ve hit the jackpot.
I did it.
It’s good!
Bull’s eye.

Stating that you understand.
I hear you.
I hear you, man.
Point well taken.
I know what you mean.
I know what you’re talking about.
I understand what you’re saying.
(I)got it.
I follow you.
I’m with you.

Making sure you are understood.
Do you know what I mean?
Do you know what I’m talking about?
Do you see what I mean?
See what I mean?
Don’t you see?
Do you get the message?
Do you get the picture?
Do you understand?
Do you hear what I’m saying?
Do you hear me?
Do you agree?
You’re with me, right?
Are you with me on this?
Do we see eye to eye on this?

(E) Good-byes

 Simple good-byes.
Ta-ta. (info)
Good-bye until later.
Good-bye for now.
Good-bye until next time.
See you later.
See you later, alligator.
Later, gator.
Later. (info)
See you next year.
See you then.
See you tomorrow.

Taking leave of someone.
Good running into you.
(It was) nice to see you.
Nice meeting you..
It was a pleasure meeting you. (for)
It has been a real pleasure. (for)

Leaving a place.
Are you about finished?
Are you really to go.
Ready to go?
Ready to roll?
Let’s get while the getting’s good.
Let’s head out.
Let’s beat a hasty retreat.
Let’s make tracks. (info)
Let’s molar.
Let’s make like the wind and blow.
Le’s make like a banana and split.
Exit stage right.
Exit stage left.

Making plans to keep in touch with someone.
I’ll call you when I get home.
Call when you get there.
I will be in touch.
Let’s keep in touch.

(D) Ending a conversation

Signaling the end of the conversation.
Oh, look at the time!
It’s getting late.
It’s been nice chatting with you.
It’s so good to see you again.
Let’s do lunch sometime.
I really have to go now.

Ending a telephone conversation.
We’ll talk sometime.
I must say good-bye now.
I won’t keep you any longer.
I’ll let you go now.

Ending a conversation abruptly.
I’ll have to say good-bye now.
Look at the time.
Let’s continue this another time.
I really must go.

(c) Introduction

Introducing someone to someone else.
Rita, have you met Bob?
Rita, do you know Bob?
Bob, shake hands with John.
Do you two know each other?
Have you met?
Have you two been introduced?
Haven't you two been introduced?
Oh, I'm sorry; how silly of me.
This is Rita.
Rita, Bob is the guy I was telling about. (info)
You two have a lot of common.

When you have just been introduced to someone.
Good to meet you.
Nice to meet you.
nice meeting you..
I'm happy to meet you.
I'm glad to meet you.
Glad to meet you.
A pleasure. (for)

After you have been introduced to someone.
I have been waiting to meet you for sometime.
I have heard so much about you.
I feel I know you already.

Asking how someone is.
How are you?
How's your family?
How are you doing?
How are you feeling?
How you feeling?
Are you feeling better today?
How you been?

Asking someone how things are going.
How are things?
How are things going?
How's tricks?
How's it sh akin?
How's everything?
How's every little thing?
How's everything going?
How's the world (been) treating you?